Christianity 201

October 19, 2015

Made in the Image of God

Gen 1:26 Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”

27 So God created mankind in his own image,
    in the image of God he created them;
    male and female he created them.

Col 1:15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation

Heb 1:3a The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word…

John 14:9b Anyone who has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?

Today’s author came recommended to us. Josh Ketchum has been a pastor in Kentucky for the past 12 years and marriage and family counseling is an area he feel especially drawn to. You can learn more by reading today’s post at his website and then clicking around to see other articles. Click the title below…

The Image of God: What Does it Mean?

There is tremendous talk about mass shootings these days, and rightly so.  While the problem is multifaceted, the root goes back to the individual’s beliefs.  This is one product of a larger problem, we as a nation are raising thousands of individuals who do not know who they are!  They have been fed a message of evolution which says they are nothing more than flesh and blood which evolved over millions of years from lower life forms.  They don’t know where they have come from, and certainly not where they are going!  Thus, they live solely for the present.

image of GodThe doctrine of man being created in the image of God is so crucial because it teaches the uniqueness of man.  Genesis describes man’s creation as unique from the rest of plant and animal life (Gen. 1-2).  Humans are the only life-form that resembles God!  We are unique in creation because of our personhood and purpose.

Humanity possesses unique personhood traits like intellect, language, volition, creativity, conscience, and emotions. We have religious desires which are similar to our moral and ethical thoughts.  Most importantly though, each individual possesses a soul or spirit that will live eternally (Ecc. 12:7).

It seems He created us in His image for the purpose of a relationship with us.  We possess his qualities and elements of his character so as to be able to relate to Him.  We also represent Him in this world.  While Christ is the perfect representation of God, the image of God is not lost in man’s sin.  Truthfully, God’s image is distorted, and often marred, by the sinful actions of humans, but his image is still upon man.  Like a coin that is scratched and worn, the value is still there.  So each person still has value and worth, because of their nature of being made in the image of God.¹  Genesis places an emphasis upon us being created in His image to provide dominion and care for the world.

This doctrine has great implications, much of our current cultural issues are addressed in understanding this Biblical truth.  Being made in God’s image impacts how we view the animal world (Gen. 9:6).  Animals are acceptable to be eaten, should be cared for with good stewardship, and can serve humanity.  But, they are not to be seen as on par with humanity.  This doctrine is the foundation for our beliefs about the value of human life.  We oppose abortion, euthanasia, and value the oppressed and suffering because every human life is valuable.  Being made in the image of God changes how you view yourself.  It creates a positive and healthy self-image.  It underscores the church’s call to evangelism.  God created all of humanity and wants all to come to know their Creator and Father.  Finally, it motivates us to live godly lives as we are a reflection of our Creator and Savior.  Truly the image of God is present in everyone’s nature, and has the potential to be present in everyone’s actions.  We are to be made as the “new self” after the image of our Creator (Col. 3:9-10).

This truth is so vital for our world.  We must reclaim the truth for all humanity that we are not just flesh and blood living for the present, but wonderfully made beings, as the apex of God’s creation, who represent the Creator having His image and likeness upon us.  When people believe they are a reflection of God it will change how they view themselves and treat others.

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¹ Genesis 1:26-28;  2 Cor. 4:3-4; Col. 1:15; Heb. 1:3-4; John 14:9

December 7, 2011

Deconstructing Depravity, Totally

Oh Oh! We’ve used up our three wishes. Apparently Jim Greer’s writing has already graced the pages of Christianity 201 three times, including some rather recently.  But how could I let this one pass? It’s just too good not to have you all consider this topic. So you can do the polite thing and click over to Not For Itching Ears, or you can simply keep reading the post here which I have stolen borrowed. Jim, I promise, one more and we’ll put you on the payroll.  For the rest of us, I guess instead of reading at the newsstand, we should just buy a subscription…  (Click now!  This means you! Yes, you!)

Could the Doctrine of Total Depravity be Totally Depraved?

Over here at Not For Itching Ears we like to discuss issues that challenge our view of Christianity and the Church.   It is healthy to consider what one believes about the Christian faith and how we express that faith in our corporate church life.  If all we ever do is listen to ourselves, we can inadvertently become the kind of people Paul warned Timothy about:  People who surround themselves with “teachers who say what their itching ears want to hear.”  Today’s post is an attempt to counter that tendency among us as we discuss the Doctrine of  Total Depravity.  To do this, we turn to a passage from  “Reconsidering Tulip”by Alexander J. Renault.  It is written from an Orthodox perspective.

Like many of you, I have always assumed that Total Depravity was a doctrine universally accepted by the church of all ages.  But I was wrong.  It is a rather new concept.  In fact the early church fathers, categorically rejected the idea.  That troubles me a lot.  If Paul understood humanity to be totally depraved or to have a total inability, why did his disciples and the disciples after him flat-out deny it?  Calvinism doesn’t work without this idea, so I can see why we would hesitate to even discuss it.  It wasn’t until Calvin that this idea became the unquestionable doctrine it has become.

I don’t think this article settles the question, but the author does bring out some interesting things that most of probably have not considered.

So, let the Discussion begin…

“The immediate concomitant of the first sin was the total depravity of human nature. The contagion of his sin at once spread through the entire man, leaving no part of his nature untouched, but vitiating every power and faculty of body and soul.” Louis Berkhof

The ontological problem with Total depravity is with the word “nature.” According to Total depravity, our very nature has changed. But what is a nature? In technical terms, “nature” refers to the essence of something—that which makes a thing a thing at its deepest level.

The early church Fathers used the term ousia for nature or essence. God is one nature (ousia) and three persons. Christ and the Father are of the same ousia. The incarnate Christ has two natures—human and divine.

So, if humans are intrinsically sinful in their essence (i.e. “sinful nature”), then God created sin. The Reformed will of course argue, “No, man was created with a good nature, but that nature changed.” But how can a nature change? A nature is the definition of a thing, and can only be defined by the one who creates the thing. What is the nature of a brick, for example? It’s a small, rectangular, hand-held fire-baked building block. If a single brick is broken, it doesn’t change the definition of brick nature. even if someone destroys every brick in the world, that still doesn’t change the definition of what a brick is. It doesn’t change brick nature. A man cannot change his nature any more than a brick could change its nature. Only God can change the nature/definition/essence of a thing. But to do so would make God the author of sin. . . . . . .

To take it to a more personal level, did God make you personally? Did He knit you together in your mother’s womb? If not, then God is not your creator, and I suppose it doesn’t matter what He thinks. But if He did create you, then what kind of nature did He create you with? A good nature, or a sinful nature? The answer that the church has historically given is that you are created with a good nature. You are created in the image of God. You are created to be an icon of God—a picture of God, here on earth.

But like a gold ring in a pile of manure, we are glorious creatures bound by sin and corruption. The nature or value of the gold ring doesn’t change, even if the environment does. Likewise, it is difficult for our true nature to be seen when we’re buried in a stinking pile of death and rot.

. . . . . Again, if sin is intrinsic to humanity, then Adam wasn’t human before he fell, nor will we be human when we’re in heaven, where there will be no sin. But if sin is foreign to our true nature, foreign to the image of god, then it makes little sense to say that we have a “sinful nature” . . . .

. . . . Another major problem is encountered when we confuse person with nature. What is a person? We might say that it is a unique manifestation of a nature. The early greeks used the term hypostasis for person and ousia for nature. Christ is one person (hypostasis) with two natures (ousia). The Trinity is one in essence, but with three persons (hypostases). There is only one human nature (or “humanity”) expressed uniquely in six billion different human persons. . . .

. . . The doctrine of Total depravity states that we are “utterly unable to choose to follow God or choose to turn to Christ in faith for salvation.” This is because, as Berkhof says, we have depraved natures, and we only choose what our nature dictates. In other words, we cannot help but to choose sin, because we have a sinful nature. But is choice a function of person or of nature?  Do people choose to do things or do natures choose to do things? I believe it’s a function of person, not nature.

Think about this idea of person vs. nature with the Trinity: God is one divine nature (ousia) and three persons (hypostases). can “holiness” be separated from God the Father, Son, or Holy Spirit? No, because holiness is an aspect of God’s nature. It is a natural attribute. Can “incarnation” be separated from God the Father? Yes. God the Father was not incarnate, but the Son was. Thus, incarnation is a personal attribute of the second person of the Trinity, not a natural attribute shared by all three persons of the godhead. . . .

. . . . Likewise, sin is a personal attribute and not a natural/essential one. If our choice to act sinfully was from our nature, then that would imply that all of our actions are simply the result of what our nature dictates. But the problem with that line of reasoning is that God Himself couldn’t help but to create, redeem, etc., because it’s His nature and not His personal free choice. This would mean that God created the world not because He chose to, but because He had to, according to His nature. He saved us not because He chose to, but because He had to, according to His nature. I’m inclined rather to agree with St. Patrick of Ireland, who said that the lord “gladly and of His own free will pardoned me.”

We can begin to see how a confusion of person and nature leads to a very limited God with no free choice. . . .

. . . . of vital importance to the discussion on Total depravity, and unfortunately all but neglected by most Reformed in my experience, is the doctrine of the incarnation. This brings the discussion of human nature out of the simply anthropological realm and into the christological realm.

The crux of the matter is this: if Christ did not have a human nature, then He cannot save us. If Christ was fully human, but not fully God, then He cannot bring us up to God. If He is fully God but not fully human, then He cannot come completely down to us and bridge the gap between us and God. The first several ecumenical councils of the church all dealt with this issue.

It is generally agreed among the Reformed that Christ was fully God and fully human. Unfortunately, the implications of this are not always understood by the Reformed. For if Christ is fully human, then He must have a human soul, a human will, a human mind—in short, a human nature. And yet He was without sin. This tells us that sin is not an integral part of human nature, and that one is still human apart from sin. Otherwise, either 1) christ was just as sinful as we are, or else 2) christ wasn’t fully human and can’t really save us.

John 1:14 – And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.

Heb 2:11, 17 – For both He who sanctifies and those who are being sanctified are all of one, for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren … Therefore, in all things He had to be made like His brethren, that He might be a merciful and faithful High priest in things pertaining to God, to make expiation for the sins of the people.

This Hebrews passage is especially significant regarding Christ’s  human nature. It says that “in all things” He had to be made human.   And yet He was without sin. This would suggest that “sin nature” is in  fact foreign to true “human nature.

For Another interesting discussion on a topic you may have always assumed could not be challenged, see our series of articles called “A Compelling Argument AGAINST Sola Scriptura (Scripture Alone) or our series called “A Strong Argument Against Calvinism?”

~Jim Greer

For today, I’m closing comments here in order to encourage you to generate discussion at the source blog, where Jim is, I’m sure, more prepared to deal with issues arising from today’s discussion than I would be !!  I’m sure that for some of you this strikes at the heart of all you hold dear, but remember that ‘holding dear’ shouldn’t be the basis of establishing a personal, systematic theology for any of us.

November 8, 2011

Henri Nouwen on Being the Beloved

I’m looking for video clips of Christian writers who are very frequently read but not as frequently seen.  So I was drawn to this set of eight videos of Henri Nouwen speaking at the Crystal Cathedral.  The first four clips are from a message titled, Being the Beloved; the other four are from a message titled Becoming the Beloved. Double-click the video below to watch on YouTube which will lead you to the links to the other sections.

For a previous piece here containing Henri Nouwen quotes, click here.